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Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! A few months later the city was occupied by the French Army and the Greek Army that supported the Russian White Army in its struggle with the Bolsheviks.

The Ukrainian general Nikifor Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome Triple Entente forces out of the city, but Odessa was soon retaken by the Russian White Army.

The people of Odessa suffered badly from a famine that resulted from the Russian Civil War in — due to the Soviet policies of prodrazverstka. Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August The defense of Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October The defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of trenches, anti-tank ditches and pillboxes.

The first line was 80 kilometres 50 miles long and situated some 25 to 30 kilometres 16 to 19 miles from the city. The second and main line of defense was situated 6 to 8 kilometres 3.

The third and last line of defense was organized inside the city itself. A medal , "For the Defence of Odessa" , was established on 22 December Approximately 38, medals were awarded to servicemen of the Soviet Army, Navy, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and civil citizens who took part in the city's defense.

It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of " Hero City " in These others were Leningrad , Stalingrad , and Sevastopol.

Lyudmila Pavlichenko , the famous female sniper, took part in the battle for Odessa. Her first two kills were effected near Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.

She recorded confirmed kills during the defense of Odessa. Pavlichenko's confirmed kills during World War II totaled including 36 enemy snipers.

Before being occupied by Romanian troops in , a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa's remaining harbour facilities.

The city was land mined in the same way as Kyiv. Following the Siege of Odessa , and the Axis occupation, approximately 25, Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over 35, deported; this came to be known as the Odessa massacre.

As a result, despite the events of , the survival of the Jewish population in this area was higher than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe.

The city suffered severe damage and sustained many casualties over the course of the war. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during both its siege and recapture on 10 April , when the city was finally liberated by the Red Army.

Some of the Odessans had a more favourable view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation, oppression and suffering — claims embodied in public monuments and disseminated through the media to this day.

During the s and s, the city grew. Nevertheless, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to Israel , the United States and other Western countries between the s and s.

Domestic migration of the Odessan middle and upper classes to Moscow and Leningrad , cities that offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale.

Despite this, the city grew rapidly by filling the void of those left with new migrants from rural Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from all over the Soviet Union.

The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks to its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced aspects of Odessan life in some way or form.

Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining , chemicals, metalworking, and food processing.

Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a fishing fleet. It is known for its large outdoor market — the Seventh-Kilometer Market , the largest of its kind in Europe.

The city has seen violence in the pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine during Odessa clashes. The 2 May Odessa clashes between pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protestors killed 42 people.

Four were killed during the protests, and at least 32 trade unionists were killed after a trade union building was set on fire after Molotov cocktails exchange between sides [31] [32].

Polls conducted from September to December found no support for joining Russia. Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December , one of which killed one person the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that he had dealt with explosives.

Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were singled out because of their "geographic position".

The average elevation at which the city is located is around 50 metres feet , while the maximum is 65 metres feet and minimum on the coast amounts to 4.

The city currently covers a territory of Sources of running water in the city include the Dniester River, from which water is taken and then purified at a processing plant just outside the city.

Being located in the south of Ukraine, the topography of the area surrounding the city is typically flat and there are no large mountains or hills for many kilometres around.

Flora is of the deciduous variety and Odessa is known for its tree-lined avenues which, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, made the city a favourite year-round retreat for the Russian aristocracy.

The city's location on the coast of the Black Sea has also helped to create a booming tourist industry in Odessa.

Odessa's many sandy beaches are considered to be quite unique in Ukraine, [ citation needed ] as the country's southern coast particularly in the Crimea tends to be a location in which the formation of stoney and pebble beaches has proliferated.

The coastal cliffs adjacent to the city are home to frequent landslides , resulting in a typical change of landscape along the Black Sea.

Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the city above sea level near water.

These cavities can cause buildings to collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Due to the effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city, the result is instability under some buildings' foundations.

During the tsarist era, Odessa's climate was considered to be beneficial for the body, and thus many wealthy but sickly persons were sent to the city in order to relax and recuperate.

This resulted in the development of spa culture and the establishment of a number of high-end hotels in the city. Summers on the other hand do see an increased level of precipitation, and the city often experiences warm weather with temperatures often reaching into the high 20s and low 30s.

Snow cover is often light or moderate, and municipal services rarely experience the same problems that can often be found in other, more northern, Ukrainian cities.

This is largely because the higher winter temperatures and coastal location of Odessa prevent significant snowfall. Additionally the city hardly ever faces the phenomenon of sea-freezing.

According to the census, Ukrainians make up a majority 62 percent of Odessa's inhabitants, along with an ethnic Russian minority 29 percent.

Despite Odessa's Ukrainian majority, Russian is the dominant language in the city. Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and minority ethnic groups , including Albanians , Armenians , Azeris , Crimean Tatars , Bulgarians , Georgians , Greeks , Jews , Poles , Romanians , Turks , among others.

As the result of mass deportation to extermination camps during the Second World War , the city's Jewish population declined considerably.

Since the s, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and other countries, shrinking the Jewish community. Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century, the largest ethnic group in Odessa was Russians , with the second largest ethnic group being Jews.

Whilst Odessa is the administrative centre of the Odessa Oblast , the city is also the main constituent of the Odessa Municipality. However, since Odessa is a city of regional significance , this makes the city subject directly to the administration of the oblast's authorities, thus removing it from the responsibility of the municipality.

The city of Odessa is governed by a mayor and city council which work cooperatively to ensure the smooth-running of the city and procure its municipal bylaws.

The city's budget is also controlled by the administration. The mayoralty [54] plays the role of the executive in the city's municipal administration.

Above all comes the mayor, who is elected, by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a certain particular part of the city's public policy.

The City Council [56] of the city makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada.

The municipal council is made up of elected members, [57] who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term.

The current council is the fifth in the city's modern history, and was elected in January In the regular meetings of the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and annually the city's budget is drawn up.

The council has seventeen standing commissions [58] which play an important role in controlling the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants.

The territory of Odessa is divided into four administrative raions districts :. In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to the Odessa City council , and with limited responsibilities.

Many of Odessa's buildings have, rather uniquely for a Ukrainian city, been influenced by the Mediterranean style of classical architecture.

This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by architects such as the Italian Francesco Boffo , who in early 19th-century built a palace and colonnade for the Governor of Odessa, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace and many other public buildings.

In one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was completed — the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera houses.

The first opera house was opened in and destroyed by fire in The modern building was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in neo-baroque ; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style.

It is said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage can be heard in any part of the hall. The theatre was projected along the lines of Dresden's Semperoper built in , with its nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the building's most recent renovation was completed in Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Stairs , is a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass.

The original steps now reduced to were designed by Italian architect Francesco Boffo and built between and The steps were made famous by Sergei Eisenstein in his film, Battleship Potemkin.

Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local smugglers.

This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of tunnels beneath Odessa, known as " Odessa Catacombs ". During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for partisans and natural shelter for civilians, who were escaping air plane bombing.

As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all year round. The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.

The port, which includes an oil refinery, container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by breakwaters.

The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its passenger terminals can cater for around 4 million passengers a year at full capacity.

There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of which is an arboretum.

The city is also home to a university botanical garden, which recently celebrated its th anniversary, and a number of other smaller gardens.

When Felix decided that he was no longer able to provide enough money for the garden's upkeep, he decided to present it to the people of Odessa.

Nowadays the garden is home to a bandstand and is the traditional location for outdoor theater in the summertime. Numerous sculptures can also be found within the grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of which are computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody being played.

The park covers an area of around by metres 2, by 3, feet and is located near the centre of the city, on the side closest to the sea.

Within the park there are a variety of cultural and entertainment facilities, and wide pedestrian avenues. In the center of the park is the local top-flight football team's Chornomorets Stadium , the Alexander Column and municipal observatory.

The Baryatinsky Bulvar is popular for its route, which starts at the park's gate before winding its way along the edge of the coastal plateau. There are a number of monuments and memorials in the park, one of which is dedicated to the park's namesake, the Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko.

Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of higher education. The city's best-known and most prestigious university is the Odessa 'I.

Mechnikov' National University. This university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in as the Imperial Novorossian University.

Since then the university has developed to become one of modern Ukraine's leading research and teaching universities, with staff of around 1, and total of thirteen academic faculties.

The last of these institutions is a highly specialised and prestigious establishment for the preparation and training of merchant mariners which sees around 1, newly qualified officer cadets graduate each year and take up employment in the merchant marines of numerous countries around the world.

The South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University is also based in the city, this is one of the largest institutions for the preparation of educational specialists in Ukraine and is recognised as one of the country's finest of such universities.

In addition to all the state-run universities mentioned above, Odessa is also home to many private educational institutes and academies which offer highly specified courses in a range of different subjects.

These establishments, however, typically charge much higher fees than government-owned establishments and may not have held the same level of official accreditation as their state-run peers.

With regard to primary and secondary education, Odessa has many schools catering for all ages from kindergarten through to lyceum final secondary school level age.

Most of these schools are state-owned and operated, and all schools have to be state-accredited in order to teach children. Fine Arts museum is the biggest art gallery in the city, which collection includes canvas mostly of Russian painters from 17thst centuries, icon collection and modern art.

The Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is big art museum; it has large European collections from the 16—20th centuries along with the art from the East on display.

Also of note is the city's Alexander Pushkin Museum , which is dedicated to detailing the short time Pushkin spent in exile in Odessa, a period during which he continued to write.

The poet also has a city street named after him, as well as a statue. Among the city's public sculptures, two sets of Medici lions can be noted, at the Vorontsov Palace [64] as well as the Starosinnyi Garden.

Jacob Adler , the major star of the Yiddish theatre in New York and father of the actor, director and teacher Stella Adler , was born and spent his youth in Odessa.

Zhvanetsky's and Kartsev's success in the s, along with Odessa's KVN team, contributed to Odessa's established status as "capital of Soviet humor", culminating in the annual Humoryna festival, carried out around the beginning of April.

Odessa was also the home of the late Armenian painter Sarkis Ordyan — , the Ukrainian painter Mickola Vorokhta and the Greek philologist, author and promoter of Demotic Greek Ioannis Psycharis — Igor Glazer Production Manager Baruch Agadati — , the Israeli classical ballet dancer, choreographer, painter, and film producer and director grew up in Odessa, as did Israeli artist and author Nachum Gutman — Israeli painter Avigdor Stematsky —89 was born in Odessa.

Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school, Pyotr Stolyarsky. Note: Richter studied in Odessa but wasn't born there.

The Odessa International Film Festival is also held in this city annually since Poet Anna Akhmatova was born in Bolshoy Fontan near Odessa, [66] however her further work was not connected with the city and its literary tradition.

The city has produced many writers, including Isaac Babel , whose series of short stories, Odessa Tales , are set in the city. Vera Inber , a poet and writer, as well as the poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger were both born in Odessa.

The Italian writer, slavist and anti-fascist dissident Leone Ginzburg was born in Odessa into a Jewish family, and then went to Italy where he grew up and lived.

One of the most prominent pre-war Soviet writers , Valentin Kataev , was born here and began his writing career as early as high school gymnasia.

Before moving to Moscow in , he made quite a few acquaintances here, including Yury Olesha and Ilya Ilf Ilf's co-author Petrov was in fact Kataev's brother, Petrov being his pen-name.

Kataev became a benefactor for these young authors, who would become some of the most talented and popular Russian writers of this period. These authors and comedians played a great role in establishing the "Odessa myth" in the Soviet Union.

Odessites were and are viewed in the ethnic stereotype as sharp-witted, street-wise and eternally optimistic. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the "Soviet Jew" depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in which a Jewish adherent served as a wise and subtle dissenter and opportunist, always pursuing his own well-being , but unwittingly pointing out the flaws and absurdities of the Soviet regime.

The Odessan Jew in the jokes always "came out clean" and was, in the end, a lovable character — unlike some of other jocular nation stereotypes such as The Chukcha, The Ukrainian, The Estonian or The American.

Odessa is a popular tourist destination , with many therapeutic resorts in and around the city. April Fools' Day , held annually on 1 April, is one of the most celebrated festivals in the city.

Practical joking is a central theme throughout, and Odessans dress in unique, colorful attire to express their spontaneous and comedic selves.

Pyotr Schmidt better known as "Lieutenant Schmidt" , one of the leaders of the Sevastopol uprising , was born in Odessa.

Ze'ev Jabotinsky was born in Odessa, and largely developed his version of Zionism there in the early s. Another intelligence agent from Odessa was Genrikh Lyushkov , who joined in the Odessa Cheka in and reached two-star rank in the NKVD before fleeing to Japanese-occupied Manchuria in to avoid being murdered.

The composer Jacob Weinberg — was born in Odessa. He composed over works and was the founder of the Jewish National Conservatory in Jerusalem before immigrating to the U.

Valeria Lukyanova , a girl from Odessa who looks very similar to a Barbie doll, has received attention on the Internet and from the media for her doll-like appearance.

Mikhail Zhvanetsky , writer, satirist and performer best known for his shows targeting different aspects of the Soviet and post-Soviet everyday life is one of most famous living Odessans.

The economy of Odessa largely stems from its traditional role as a port city. The nearly ice-free port lies near the mouths of the Dnieper , the Southern Bug , the Dniester and the Danube rivers, which provide good links to the hinterland.

The port complex contains an oil and gas transfer and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and a large passenger port.

In the Port of Odessa handled 31,, tonnes of cargo. Rail transport is another important sector of the economy in Odessa — largely due to the role it plays in delivering goods and imports to and from the city's port.

Industrial enterprises located in and around the city include those dedicated to fuel refinement, machine building, metallurgy, and other types of light industry such as food preparation, timber plants and chemical industry.

Agriculture is a relatively important sector in the territories surrounding the city. The Seventh-Kilometer Market is a major commercial complex on the outskirts of the city where private traders now operate one of the largest market complexes in Eastern Europe.

Daily sales, according to the Ukrainian periodical Zerkalo Nedeli , were believed to be as high as USD 20 million in With a staff of 1, mostly guards and janitors , the market is also the region's largest employer.

It is owned by local land and agriculture tycoon Viktor A. Dobriansky and three partners of his. Tavria-V is the most popular retail chain in Odessa.

Key areas of business include: retail, wholesale, catering, production, construction and development, private label. Consumer recognition is mainly attributed [ by whom?

Tavria-V is the biggest private company and the biggest tax payer. Deribasivska Street is one of the city's most important commercial streets, hosting many of the city's boutiques and higher-end shops.

In addition to this there are a number of large commercial shopping centres in the city. The 19th-century shopping gallery Passage was, for a long time, the city's most upscale shopping district, and remains to this day [update] an important landmark of Odessa.

The tourism sector is of great importance to Odessa, which is currently [ when? Other sectors of the city's economy include the banking sector: the city hosts a branch of the National Bank of Ukraine.

Imexbank , one of Ukraine's largest commercial banks, was based in the city, however on May 27, , the Deposit Guarantee Fund of Ukraine made a decision to liquidate the bank.

Foreign business ventures have thrived in the area, as since 1 January , much of the city and its surrounding area has been declared [ by whom?

To date a number of Japanese and Chinese companies, as well as a host of European enterprises, have invested in the development of the free economic zone, to this end private investors in the city have invested a great deal of money into the provision of quality office real estate and modern manufacturing facilities such as warehouses and plant complexes.

A number of world-famous scientists have lived and worked in Odessa. Odessa is a major maritime-transport hub that includes several ports including Port of Odessa , Port of Chornomorsk ferry, freight , Yuzhne freight only.

The Port of Odessa became a provisional headquarters for the Ukrainian Navy , following the Russian occupation of Crimea in Passenger ships and ferries connect Odessa with Istanbul , Haifa and Varna , whilst river cruises can occasionally be booked for travel up the Dnieper River to cities such as Kherson , Dnipro and Kyiv.

Navrotsky, came to Odessa from France in He was a popular city publisher of the newspaper The Odessa Leaf. Odessa is linked to the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, by the M05 Highway , a high quality multi-lane road which is set to be re-designated, after further reconstructive works, as an 'Avtomagistral' motorway in the near future.

The M14 is of particular importance to Odessa's maritime and shipbuilding industries as it links the city with Ukraine's other large deep water port Mariupol which is located in the south east of the country.

Odessa also has a well-developed system of inter-urban municipal roads and minor beltways. However, the city is still lacking an extra-urban bypass for transit traffic which does not wish to proceed through the city centre.

Odessa is served by a number of railway stations and halts, the largest of which is Odessa Holovna Main Station , from where passenger train services connect Odessa with Warsaw , Prague, Bratislava , Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, St.

The city's first railway station was opened in the s, however, during the Second World War, the iconic building of the main station, which had long been considered to be one of the Russian Empire 's premier stations, was destroyed through enemy action.

In the station was rebuilt to the designs of A Chuprina. The current station, which is characterised by its many socialist-realist architectural details and grand scale, was renovated by the state railway operator Ukrainian Railways in In Odessa became the first city in Imperial Russia to have steam tramway lines, an innovation that came only one year after the establishment of horse tramway services in operated by the "Tramways d'Odessa", a Belgian owned company.

These routes were both operated by the same Belgian company. Electric tramway started to operate on 22 August Trams were imported from Germany.

The city's public transit system is currently made up of trams, [82] trolleybuses , buses and fixed-route taxis marshrutkas.

Odessa also has a cable car to Vidrada Beach, [83] and recreational ferry service. One additional mode of transport in Odessa is the Potemkin Stairs funicular railway , which runs between the city's Primorsky Bulvar and the sea terminal, has been in service since In , after many years of neglect, the city decided to raise funds for a replacement track and cars.

This project was delayed on multiple occasions but was finally completed eight years later in Odesa International Airport , which is located to the south-west of the city centre, is served by a number of airlines.

The airport is also often used by citizens of neighbouring countries for whom Odessa is the nearest large city and who can travel visa-free to Ukraine.

Additionally Turkish Airlines wide network and daily flights offers more than destinations all over the world. The most popular sport in Odessa is football.

Chornomorets play their home games at the Chornomorets Stadium , an elite-class stadium which has a maximum capacity of 34, The second football team in Odessa is FC Odessa.

Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa representing the city in the Ukrainian Basketball League , the highest tier basketball league in Ukraine.

Odessa will become one of five Ukrainian cities to host the 39th European Basketball Championship in The cyclist and aviator Sergei Utochkin was one of the most famous natives of Odessa in the years before the Russian Revolution.

Chess player Efim Geller was born in the city. Figure skaters Oksana Grishuk and Evgeny Platov won the and Olympic gold medals as well as the , , , and World Championships in ice dance.

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For other uses, see Odessa disambiguation. Place in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. Coat of arms. See also: Timeline of Odessa.

See also: Russo-Turkish War — Odessa during first days of Revolution - Revolutionary soldiers - Revolutionary soldiers, Odessa - Further information: Odessa Catacombs.

Main article: Culture of Odessa. Further information: Humorina. See also: Category:Sport in Odessa. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine.

Retrieved 7 July Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 29 May Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 9 June State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

Retrieved 30 September Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. Gebethner, p. Ochakov Oblast. History of Ukraine and its people.

Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 28 October Foreign Policy. Retrieved 16 October The Globe and Mail.

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Dieser Beitrag hat 2 Kommentare

  1. Brale

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  2. Milabar

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